Cranborne Chase : Field Diary Day 1

Today was my first day I was on site at Down Farm. The initial hour was spent mostly getting to grips with the site and talking over the logistics of the excavation. My lecturer Tim Sly was our guide and explained where Wessex Archaeology had excavated before. We looked through some of the previous discovery’s at the site including some fabulous pottery and flint work. It was really interesting to have a look at how excavated sites degrade, the previous pits having been left exposed.

The place on the farm that we are excavating over the next too weeks is called  Home Field –  thus our site code is HF17. In terms of Archaeological work it was fairly limited. I spent a few hours cleaning the surface of the trench by removing the top soil to expose the underlying chalk and making features visible. The majority of the top soil had been striped by machine the previous day but as predicted the stratigraphy is incredibly shallow.

For example post holes are very visible on the chalk and are displayed as dark circular features. We encovered a range of features other then post holes including tree fells, pits and and trenches. 

In the afternoon the owner of the farm and an almost legendary archeologist  Martin Green toured us around the site. We began by visiting his on site museum that displayed an amazing range of artifacts found on the farm and land that surround it. If you ever get the chance it is well worth a visit ! After this we walked around the perimeter of the farm and discovered the wealth of Archeology Martin had descovered. The most spectacular of which was known as the gateway to hell by everyone on site. The hole stretched 15-20 feet into the ground and was carved into the solid chalk. This mysterious feature was utterly astounding and rather took my breath away. 

All in all it was a wonderful start to our excavations.  

Cranborne Chase excavations

Sadly I am missing out on the first day of excavations at this site due a snazzy exam about Alexander the Great, but I thought I would introduce you to the area I will be excavating with the University of Southampton for the best bit of the next two weeks (06/06/17 -14/06/17).

Geographically, Cranborne is a chalk plateau that straddles the counties of Wiltshire, Dorset and Hampshire. The chalk landscape typically has very shallow stratigraphy therefore excavations here are not deep. Having taken a module in landscape archaeology I now have a newfound appreciation of the importance of underlying geology and the topography of the area in relation to its land use and habitation.

The location has long been of archaeological importance. It was here that Augustus Pitt Rivers developed what is now regarded as modern archaeological fieldwork during the 19th century. It boasts a wealth of archaeological sites from over 3000 years of human habitation. Neolithic and Bronze age monuments litter the landscape however what we are excavating is an Iron age settlement. Another notable example of excavation of the site was that carried out in  2004 by the television show Time Team (anyone who knows me knows my obsession with this show and my dedicated twitter following of @TheHardingHat)  who uncovered a Roman fort – the show is well worth a watch!

For Southampton this is their 5th season working here, and as a first year Archaeology and History student I am joining them to gain experience and be trained in the practical aspects of land based excavation. Teams from Bournemouth University and from Wessex archaeology have used similar locations at Cranborne as training.

The Site we are excavating is by Down Farm on lands owned by Dr Martin Green. I point out this land owner because of his notability as an expert on the prehistoric archaeology of the area. Dr Green has played a significant part in our understanding of Cranborne chase as a prehistoric landscape. Some notable publications of his, that I shall be reading during the course of our excavation include …

Barrett, John, Richard J. Bradley, and Martin T. Green. Landscape, monuments and society: the prehistory of Cranborne Chase. Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Green, Martin. A Landscape Revealed: 10,000 years on a chalkland farm. Tempus Pub Limited, 2000.

 

So for the final few weeks of my first year at university I am traveling back and forth from this fantastic site hopefully all the wiser and better skilled in the art of  excavation. It should be allot of fun despite the rain predicted to fall over the rest of this week at least. My aim is to complete a day by day field diary for the days I join the team.

Jawaharlal Nehru – the most quoted man in history?

In one of my recent posts I listed numerous quotes that I gathered in my journal last year. Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964), the Harrow / Cambridge educated philanthropist and first Prime Minister of India, featured prominently in this collection.

Now, Indian history is one I am largely unfamiliar with. But this is one of the great things of writing this blog – I get to explore areas of time and geography that I may not have come across in my education but would really like to learn more about.

Nehru is a figure I had heard many things about but mostly as remote facts relevant to international relations. For example I learnt of his leading role in the non-alignment movement in 1961 last year whilst studying the Cold War. It’s almost sad I didn’t further research this great man until I ran into some of his quotes on pinterest!

He has become known to many as the architect of  a democratic, modern and secular India. His life is far to complex and amazing to be triibulised by me so I implore you to read one of the following …

BBC History  – Historic figures – Jawaharlal Nehru 

PM India .gov – Shri Jawaharlal Nehru 

History .com – Jawaharlal Nehru

why he is so inspirational to me is in part because of his relationship with his daughter. Having read ‘Letters from a father to his daughter’ (1931) I have discovered the root of many of the quotes I had referenced. But these letters were more than this, they include the hopes and dreams of India as a nation and the relation between the generation fighting for independance and generation that would uphold it. Speaking to his ten year old daughter (who would also go on to become prime minister of India) he imposes ideas and concepts well beyond her years aiming to make her “think of the world as a whole, and the other peoples in it as (her) brothers and sisters”.

These letters are so beautifully written and express his ideas of the world, his dreams for the future and loving teachings – all using the most gorgeous metaphors and imagery. His letters on history speak to me particularly as he explains the “fascinating story of the earth “.

I especially think these letter inspire me because I can relate to the father-daughter relationship. They evoke the same emotions reading “the little princess” creates a book I always end up in tears reading!!

It is this emotional and worldly writing that makes him so quotable. It is writing to his daughter that he simplifies the nature of being human and living on earth to a simple but thought provoking manner. For example …

” culture is the widening of the mind and of the spirit “

Many people have attempted to rank or categorise his work and Quotes but for me my favorate Quote of his will always be …

” You don’t change the course of history by turning the faces of portraits to the wall “

with this as a close second …

” Time is not measured by the passing of time but by what one does, what one feels, and what one achieves “

 

Do you have a favorate quote from Nehru? or an area of Indian history that you think I should write about ? – tweet me @time_daisy 

Thoughts on Elton’s ‘Tudor Revolution in Government’ …

Primarily hypothesised by Dr. G. R. Elton in his 1953 book, The Tudor Revolution in Government[1], the concept reflects the departure in style of government from the medieval to the modern during Henry VIII’s reign.  There has been much historiographic argument as a result of this seminal work.

Elton emphasises the role of Henry’s chief ministers, Wolsey and Cromwell, citing the years under their ‘rule’ as the two major periods of governmental change and development during Henry’s sovereignty[2]. Elton portrays Cromwell as the usurper of a medieval, household-based government and the designer of a modern bureaucratic state that translated royal supremacy into parliamentary terms[3][4].  Bradshaw holds a similar view crediting Cromwell as the instigator of a ‘structural reorganisation designed to transmute the crown’s (medieval) jurisdiction into a unitary’[5]. Elton sees Cromwell as ‘the most remarkable revolutionary in English history’ crediting him with the ‘revolution’[6].

The argument for this perceived change, being a ‘revolution’, emphasises the adjustment in structure in addition to a shift in power within the court. Elton describes the change from ‘medieval household to modern court’[7].  This occurred almost exclusively in the 1530’s under Cromwell’s direction. The 1539-40 reconstruction of the Royal Privy Council is a key example of the changes Cromwell instigated. By the restriction and fixation of membership, as well endowing new rights under the 1539 Statute of Proclamations Act, Cromwell achieved feet’s that Wolsey was never able to in 1526 under the Eltham Ordinances. Cromwell’s reforms created what some historians see as the foundations of a modern bureaucratic government, achieved by removing medieval structures within the central administration and transforming the household into a well-organized department of state[8].

Regarding the Tudor era simply as an extension of the medieval is serious miscalculation according to Elton[9]. However historians such as Chrimes have argued that there was no ‘fundamental departure from the medieval system’ – that this was not an age of dramatic administrative revolution[10]. Chrimes argues that what Elton witnesses as a ‘revolution’ was simply a ‘rejuvenation’ of the monarchy designed to impose an exacting authority in preparation for religious reformation[11]. A.F Pollard describes changes in evolutionary terms but sees little evidence between Henry VII and the reign of his Son, prior to the Henrician Reformation[12]. Perhaps then it was the administrative consequences of conjoining the church and monarchy that initiated the modernisation of government.

[1] Elton, Geoffrey Rudolph, The Tudor Revolution In Government, 1st edn (Cambridge, 1959)

[2] Ibid pp.67

[3] Hughes-Warrington, Marnie, Fifty Key Thinkers On History, 1st edn (London: Routledge, 2015) pp.79-80

[4] Kenyon, John, The History Men, 1st edn (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1983) pp.210

[5] Coleman, Christopher and David Starkey, Revolution Reassessed, 1st edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press,1986) pp.5

[6] Williams, Penry, “A REVOLUTION IN TUDOR HISTORY?”, Past And Present, 25 (1963), 3-8  pp.6

[7] Elton, Geoffrey Rudolph, The Tudor Revolution In Government, 1st edn (Cambridge, 1959) pp.414

[8] Kenyon, John, The History Men, 1st edn (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1983) pp.210

[9] Elton, Geoffrey Rudolph, The Tudor Revolution In Government, 1st edn (Cambridge, 1959) pp.7

[10] Williams, Penry, “A REVOLUTION IN TUDOR HISTORY?”, Past And Present, 25 (1963), 3-8  pp.3

[11] Ibid   pp.4

[12]Ibid   pp.3

Wishing a Happy 258th Birthday to the British Museum

Ok so I may be a few years too late for the big 250th but in defence I was 10 at the time…

The British museum is one of the most iconic and visited museums in the world. No trip to London would be complete without wondering around the galleries for a few hours at least!

Originally founded by the physician and naturalist Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753) who, not wanting his extensive collection to be broken up after his death, gave it to the nation.  Around 71,000 objects from across the world created a new kind of a museum, one that was not private; not owned by king or the church, freely open to the public with no specific aim. It created a “universal museum”  that was more than simply a collection of curiosities. It was free and open to “all studious and curious persons”. It widened the eyes of the British people to what lay beyond Britain, Europe, even the empire.

Since its opening the museum has remained open (well with the exception of a couple of World Wars) and has seen its attendance rise from 5,000 to 6 million daily visitors. So ‘Happy Birthday’ to the British Museum, you do such wonderful work, put on the most amazing exhibits and continue to feed mine and many, many others geekiness.

 

 

Credits for the beautiful sketch –  www.simoneridyard.co.uk   – so follow her on Instagram it gives me such art envy.

For a full history of the British Museum – www.britishmuseum.org/about_us/the_museums_story/general_history.aspx

note – the British museum also have a great blog and Youtube page (That I am very jealous of) please check it out !

A look back on a crazy year

2016 will go down in history as one of the most defining years of this century – that is to say that the events that occurred will undoubtedly be written about in our children’s history textbooks (namely the election of trump)! Don’t even get me started ! as a US citizen  this was the first election I could vote in and wow was it quite a turn of event.

Anyway 2016 will be remembered by me as the year I completed A-levels, traveled the world and began life as a University student. I achieved so much but it was not without its hardships. I decided to spend the days after New-Years flicking through the Polaroid pictures I had taken to record my travels. But the most poignant thing I looked at was my bullet journal. Through the struggle of: two sets of exams, an EPQ, choosing between universities, planning travel, keeping up with blog posts, making revision pretty, dreaming about the future, attempting to be motivational, geeking out over history and discovering a love of poetry, it helped me through it all. It is now stuffed full of quotes, doodles and random bits and pieces I collected on the way. Fueled by wanderlust and my hatred of exams (an intense desire to do anything else but revise!) I thought there would be no better way to sum up the year then to share a few things I picked up along the way as well as a couple of pages.

Favorite Quotes I discovered this year …

I have not changed my mind about a particular topic and have felt no need to give it more or less attention

– J.M.Roberts

Cinderella never asked for a prince she asked for a night off and a dress

– Kiera Cass

you don’t change the course of history by turning the faces of portraits to the walls

– Jawaharlal Nehru

Quiet calm deliberation detangles every knot

– Harold macmillan

Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning

– Albert Einstein

“There are only two places in the world where we can live happy: at home and in Paris.” 

– Ernest hemingway

“If it scares you, it might be a good thing to try!”

– Seth Godin

“A ship is always safe at shore but that is not what it’s built for.” 

-Albert Einstein

It’s not all quotes I promise … this is what happens when you study history you can’t help but write down the odd quote or two every other day.

A few year defining pages …

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Notes from my interview – I wouldn’t be at univercity today without it. Dr John McNab mentioned here is my Human origins lecturer and Dr Yvonne marshall teaches me archeological and anthropological theory – both amazing lecturers who inspire me every week.   I am also really good friends with one of the other interviewees who is also now studying at Southampton. who would have thought?
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These scribbled notes turned into the best week of my life. with the little money I had saved from my birthday I traveled with three of my best friend to Paris then onto Amsterdam and finally to Berlin. We left the Day after our A-level results (or at least the morning after our celebrations) ; as you can see I was quite excited and still a little amazed I was going to Univercity.  I can honestly say  it was the first time in months I was really happy and it was a great trip to mark the end of our school days together.
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So, yes I like to doodle some pretty headings and banners from time to time it helps to make revision look ess like revision. The less neat page with all the lines though is more significant however. I had very little hope that I would ever get into uni so to be buying stuff to fill my room with seemed like a dream. However I now have a little collection of cactus, all sorts of desk organisers with an array of stationery bits and bobs (including a pencil case i made from an old pair of levis)
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As part of my EPQ I attended a conference in London about the ‘Destruction of Monuments and memory in the Middle East’; this mess of a page is only 2 of about 30 pages of notes I made. Organised by the Iran Heritage Foundation (which were really excellent and all the talks from the conference can be found on their youtube page) I really couldn’t of completed the project without the insights it gave me. It also really inspired me to look into a career in journalism (stay tuned).

and yes my handwriting is actually that appalling (blame the dyslexia) !

Poems I lived by  …

Do not hold your breath for anyone, Do not wish your lungs be still, it may delay the cracks from spreading but eventually they will.

Sometimes to keep yourself together you must allow yourself to leave, even if breaking your own heart is what it takes to let you breath.

– Erin Hanson

Yesterday I was clever, so I wanted to change the world.

Today I am wise, so I am changing myself.

-Rumi

we have calcium in our bones, iron in our veins, carbon in our souls, and nitrogen in our brains.

93% stardust with souls made of flames, we are all just stars that have people names. 

-Nikita Gill

These spiritual window-shoppers, who idly ask, “how much is that? oh, I’m just looking”. They handle a hundred items and put them down, shadows with no capital.

What is spent is love and two eyes wet with weeping. But these walk into a shop, and their whole lives pass suddenly in that moment, in that shop.

Even if you don’t know what you want, buy something, to be part of the exchanging flow. 

Start a huge, foolish project, like Noah . It makes absolutely no difference what people think of you. 

-Rum

Just some pretty pages …

Between clever quotes, poems and essay notes I did find some spaces for doodles, and pretty things … there was a lot of inspiration from pinterest  with most of these.

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so why keep a journal?

For me it helped me through a tough year. I vented my anger, expressed my fears, explored my desires using a pen and a notebook. It motivated me to get to where I am today … there are pages with sticky notes with positive messages like “think of summer” covering up rants about how hard A-levels are. To me 2016 will be about the good times, the silly quotes I collected and the dreams I reached. I can look back and smile, I can see just how much I’ve grown and how much 2016 has shaped me.

 

So thank you to nearly 600 of you who visited this little  blog last year and came with me through the tough times it really means alot. I hope to continue sharing my passion throughout 2017 so to keep up to date posts please subscribe !

 

Human Origins Essay

submitted finally! This essay taps into the recent biological advancements made in genetics and its application to the early days of our species.  This has been my favorate module  in semester one of my first year at the univercity of southampton and has allowed me to make good use of my biology A-level.

I’m not saying this is a particularly good essay (I’ve almost certainly made many errors) but I found it so interesting to write and read about that that I had to share what I learnt.

Assess the contribution that DNA has made to our understanding of when modern humans (i.e. Homo sapiens) spread out of Africa and what routes they took?

Recent advances in genetic technology have illuminated the time and space Homo sapiens travelled through when leaving Africa.  The ‘Out of Africa’ theory has been widely accepted because of overwhelming genetic evidence; now the question of how and when our species left the continent is being deciphered through a range of genetic testing.  Pushing biology to the extremities of possibility, current research has led to the remapping of the route taken by our ancestors.  Whether this migration occurred as singular or multiple events is widely disputed.  The handful of possible escape route out of Africa has been explored through the comparison of haplogroups in mtDNA lineages. DNA evidence shows a gradual decrease in genetic diversity as the distance from Africa increases.  Genetic analysis has been the most significant contribution in our understanding of this first migration out of Africa.

The 1987 study of mtDNA variation by Cann et al. set a president for the study of archaeogenetics and effectively re-wrote the theory of early modern expansion by disproving the ‘Multiregional Hypothesis’.  The benefit of analysing mitochondrial DNA is that it is non-recombining, only passed on from mother to child; its application in genetic history is therefore more substantiated then nucleotide DNA that is prone to greater variety and mutation.  By tracking the maternal line an original Cann’s study established a “Mitochondrial Eve”. She has been dated back to around 150,000 years and was argued to have given rise to 134 mitochondrial haploid types (Cann 1987).  The work was heavily criticised due to issues in method and computer programming but has since been proven essentially accurate in its conclusions.  These conclusions provided strong support for the ‘Out of Africa’ or ‘single-origin model’ by establishing a single hypothetical ancestor that originated in sub-Saharan Africa who that spread out of the continent 100,000 years ago and replaced all other Homo populations. This infers that only a select few ventured out of Africa; here we can see the restricted variation in Haploid groups as a result of a founder effect whereby a small population has gone on to colonise the rest of the world. There has been evidence that as few as ten “daughters” make up the mitochondrial lineages within modern European populations (Gusar 2004).  One of the prominent points of evidence is the similar age between the three main haplogroups in Eurasia M,N and R ; this indicates they were part of the same colonisation (Macaulay et al. 2005).

By comparing mtDNA variety between populations of modern humans and our “Cousins” the chimpanzee, Cann was able to establish a significant lack of variety within modern populations (Cann 1987). The existence of a small pioneering expedition of Homo sapiens who ventured out of Africa 100,000 years ago has now been conclusively accepted; this is largely due to irrefutable genetic evidence.  The study of nuclear DNA, especially of strand CD4 locus on chromosome 12 (Tishkoff et al. 1996), has shown a different variety of mutations in Africa whilst having a heavily restricted variation throughout the rest of the world. This supports the ‘Out of Africa’ theory and posits that non-African descendants originated from a small pioneering group that left Africa at a maximum age of 102,000 years ago given the inferred date of initial mutation (Tishkoff et al 1996).

The contribution of DNA in establishing an approximate date of dispersal, to the point where a few thousand years can be argued either way is one of the greatest archaeological advances of our time.  Our understanding of when this occurred allowed us to irrevocably disprove the traditional ‘Multiregional Hypothesis’ of human evolution and forgo some of the polycentric ideas that became associated with it – disproving the idea of ‘race’.  Analysis of Nuclear DNA has gone a long way in our understanding of the flow of genetics across the world.  Evidence of a restricted genetic pool in the initial colonisation of the world outside of Africa insinuates the occurrence of the founder’s effect or potentially a genetic bottleneck where diversity is heavily restricted.  The evidence resulting from the complete mapping of the Human genome in 2004 emphasised greater variation within sub-Saharan populations than the rest of the world; there was no exodus out of Africa.

Work in the 1980-90’s almost exclusively debated the plausibility of the two main models of human global colonisation however the discussion has turned towards the more intricate task of understanding the relationship between our genetic ancestry and demographic history (Groucutt et al. 2015). The movement of Homo sapiens out of Africa lies at the cusp of scientific possibility; advances in our technical capabilities have expanded our genetic history book by several chapters.  The new millennia now accessible for archaeogenetic study have allowed us to analyse the relationship between modern populations in order to determine the route of the first settlers.  The debate is now largely centred on the mapping of routes our ancestors most plausibly took on their exit from Africa.  Some have speculated that this early migration may have occurred multiple times and not necessarily followed the same path.

The most prominent theories of human dispersal suggest a northerly exit from the African continent seeing three possible escape routes; across the Mediterranean to southern Europe and Italy, across the straits of Gibraltar and across the Levant. Each theory insinuates a sea crossing there being no immediate land bridge between the continents in geographic reconstructions at the proposed time of crossing ~100,000 years ago (Cann 1987).  However others have posited a southerly route across the Indian Ocean is a more probable route as a single dispersal model. The analysis of haplogroups in mtDNA has shown the time periods in which these divergences of populations occurred and archaeological evidence along coastal Africa signify the capability to move across bodies of water in order to populate the new land.

This path out of Africa has been been a matter of great debate however the most prominent thought sees a movement out of the to the Horn of Africa to the Arabian Peninsula.  DNA from  southern Indian and southeast Asia comply with the theory that the people who first left Africa came not across the Indian Ocean. This southern route has been supported by the analysis of mtDNA samples from New Guinea, mainland India and the Andaman Islands (Macaulay at al. 2005).  These “relic” populations have been argued to have been the result of a rapid dispersal out of Africa ~65,000 years ago.  The dating suggests that this may have been a secondary route taken at a later stage aiding the theory of multiple dispersion.  However Macaulay makes the argument that the northern routes are less likely exits. Geographic models calibrate a more arid and harsh environment as the ‘ice age’ widens deserts by locking moisture in glaciers and increased the distance to water by reducing sea levels ; the northern passages were probably blocked by desert (Macaulay et al. 2005).  This is backed up by the lineage of haplogroups; the oldest N and R have the oldest date outside of Africa and are found almost exclusively in western Asia and India and arise ~10,000 years before the development of another haplogroup U in northern Africa. This so suggests that the southerly route across to Asia was the route taken by the first global explorers.  The route along this latitude was also a lot more comfortable and ecologically rich. It is plausible that our ancestors took the path of least resistance and remained in the subtropical environments rather than push closer to the ice sheets; models have shown that southern Arabia was in a wetter phase and well within the biological niche that Homo sapiens inhabit (Armitage 2011).

Genetic studies have allowed us to trace the migration of all humans across the globe.  It has contributed a great deal to our concept of ‘race’ and social derivation. Outside of sub-Saharan Africa we have all originated from one small group of pioneering humans who 100,000 years ago decided to venture outside of the continent they were born. Our understanding of genetics and especially interpretation of mtDNA has allowed us to rewrite the earliest pages of our species history.  We have retraced the footprints of the first sapiens to step outside of the “cradle of life” and conquer the word. Geneticists have been able to tell us more about our origins in the last 50 years then we could ever have imagined. Possibly one of the greatest human achievements; the complete mapping of the Human genome in 2004 aimed to provide data in order to aid our understanding of the movement and evolution outside of Africa. We have been able to narrow the time period and space in which the human race could have left the continent. We have much to credit genetic studies for in our understanding of the first migration/s out of Africa.

Reference list :

Armitage, S.J., Jasim, S.A., Marks, A.E., Parker, A.G., Usik, V.I. and Uerpmann, H.-P. (2011) ‘The southern route “Out of Africa”: Evidence for an early expansion of modern humans into Arabia’, Report, 331(6016), pp. 453–456. doi: 10.1126/science.1199113.

Boyd, R. and Silk, J.B. (2000) How humans evolved. New York: WW Norton & Co.

Cann, R.L. (1987) ‘IN SEARCH OF EVE’, The Sciences, 27(5), pp. 30–37. doi: 10.1002/j.2326-1951.1987.tb02967.x.

Groucutt, H.S., Petraglia, M.D., Bailey, G., Scerri, E.M.L., Parton, A., Clark-Balzan, L., Jennings, R.P., Lewis, L., Blinkhorn, J., Drake, N.A., Breeze, P.S., Inglis, R.H., Devès, M.H., Meredith-Williams, M., Boivin, N., Thomas, M.G. and Scally, A. (2015) ‘Rethinking the dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa’, Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 24(4), pp. 149–164. doi: 10.1002/evan.21455.

Gusar, V., Roostalu, U., Malyarchuk, B.A., Derenko, M.V., Kivisild, T., Metspalu, E., Tambets, K., Reidla, M., Tolk, H.-V., Parik, J., Pennarun, E., Laos, S., Lunkina, A., Golubenko, M., Barać, L., Peričić, M., Balanovsky, O.P., Loogväli, E.-L., Khusnutdinova, E.K., Stepanov, V., Puzyrev, V., Rudan, P., Balanovska, E.V., Grechanina, E., Richard, C., Moisan, J.-P., Chaventré, A., Anagnou, N.P., Pappa, K.I., Michalodimitrakis, E.N., Claustres, M., Gölge, M., Mikerezi, I., Usanga, E. and Villems, R. (2004) ‘Disuniting uniformity: A Pied Cladistic canvas of mtDNA Haplogroup H in Eurasia’, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 21(11), pp. 2012–2021. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msh209.

Macaulay, V. (2005) ‘Single, rapid coastal settlement of Asia revealed by analysis of complete Mitochondrial Genomes’, Science, 308(5724), pp. 1034–1036. doi: 10.1126/science.1109792.

MitoDNA ACWilson nature1987 (no date) Available at: http://dna1.genome.ou.edu/5853/outofafrica/MitoDNA-ACWilson-Nature1987.pdf (Accessed: 1 December 2016).

Stringer, C. and Andrews, P. (2005) The complete world of human evolution: With 432 illustrations, 180 in colour. NEW YORK: Thames & Hudson.

Tishkoff, S.A., Dietzsch, E., Speed, W., Pakstis, A.J., Kidd, J.R., Cheung, K., Bonne-Tamir, B., Santachiara-Benerecetti, A.S., Moral, P., Krings, M., Paabo, S., Watson, E., Risch, N., Jenkins, T. and Kidd, K.K. (1996) ‘Global patterns of linkage Disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins’, Science, 271(5254), pp. 1380–1387. doi: 10.1126/science.271.5254.1380.

 

Ljubljana

I went on about how excited I was to visit this wonderful city in my last post …. a few months later, sat in my Uni halls, thinking back to the amazing summer I had that all started with my trip to this stunning place.

This is a little photo diary of my time there; seeing the sights and being a proper tourist. This was the first time I toured a foreign city on my own so I made the most of it and honed my photography skills. Please enjoy

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Guess Where I’m Going …

I am very excited about the end of exams – more than just the simple fact I will no longer be taking exams and panicking about their impact – I will be of to a place I have never been before and I cannot wait!

Ljubljana is the capital of Slovenia and and for a city with such a rich and diverse history it is amazing I hadn’t heard of it before. The Ancient Greek myths of  Jason and the Argonauts were said to have established the city after fleeing from the King of Aetes having stolen the golden fleece.  Having encountered a dragon whilst there the city’s “dragon bridge” is named after Jason’s victory over the monster – I will be sure to take a selfie!

However most accounts state that the city began in the 1st century AD as a Roman one ; highlighting on the trade route between Upper pannonia and the northern Roamn colonies of Norcicum and Aquilia. Roman walls and dwellings give physical evidence of this period unlike the supposed Greek settlement. Before the trade route was utilized the area was populated with celtic tribes since around 2000 BC ; the ground was largely marsh and dwellers were subsistence hunter-fishermen.

 

 

The germanic occupation began in the 6rd century; with them came rapid growth. I look forward to visiting many of the city squares of which most are from this era. The city developed despite battling to eventually come under Habsburg rule in 1335 and suffering a huge earthquake 1511. Rebuilding under renaissance style it will be interesting to see the contrast in architecture as the city changed hands frequently in the middle ages each bringing a unique style – that is if any of it survived through several earthquakes!

Since its founding the citys geographical position has made it strategically vital. The deterioration of the Western Roman Empire saw the destruction of much of the city as the Huns invaded. There are still early christian churches that remain – again more photo opportunities! the best example of it strategic importance would be the building of Ljubljana Castle in the late 15th century. This was in reaction to the threat of the turks who wanted control of the well connected city. The Castle is probably the thing I am most looking forward to visiting – who can resist a good medieval castle !

Ljubljana is a City where Slovenian nationality began. The Slovene language was said to be established here. The rich culture of the city is argued to have been established with the philharmonic in 1701. However it was not until more recent history, the 1860’s, that it truly became the slovenian cultural centre . The city gained true power status and recognition as it hosted the four members of the holy alliance in 1821 who met to discuss the democratic revolution and national movements of Italy and how to suppress them.

6601493 - Kopija

My favorate Ljubljana dweller by far is Tito ; the infamous Yugoslavian leader of the state post WW2 . The first World War had passed the city only indirectly affecting its residents ; the outbreak of the second would drive its path of history to the Right. The city was encircled by the Fascist by a 30m high wire fence to keep it isolated – commemorated in the path of Remembrance and Comradeship  I am aiming to walk around the city following it. Tito died in the city leading to Yugoslavia’s unraveling –  a tension during the Cold War straining the state’s relation with the USSR.

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For a city with such rich history it is amazing I had not heard of it before ! I’m revising hard so I can pack up and go already  … if you have ever been to this amazing city, live there or know someone else who has please leave a message or find me on twitter I would love to hear from you.

I will be posting videos and blog posts during my time there (at the end of the month) so be prepared and subscribe !

 

 

 

 

The first comic strip

Sequences of images portraying events are common throughout history . One would assume that the Bayeux Tapestry is an early form of comic strip however it was never intended as humorous ( although it been made into several internet memes)…

Bayeux Tapestry Memes...I can't get enough of these.:

Thriller Medieval Macros / Bayeux Tapestry Parodies | Know Your Meme:

 

The first true comic strip was published in the scottish newspaper “The Glasgow (or later Northern) Looking Glass”; this was the first mass-produced publication to tell stories using illustrations. Its 4th issue in 1825 included a  row of humorous images telling the story of a coat  what we would now recognise as a comic strip. The story titled the”History of a Coat” was illustrated by William Heath (1794-1840) a british caricaturist and creator of the newspaper. These illustrations were the first to use word balloons and use the term “to be continued”.

 

 

 

to read more about the history of the newspaper please visit –

http://special.lib.gla.ac.uk/exhibns/month/june2005.html